OPEN ACCESS PEER-REVIEWED | RESEARCH ARTICLE

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Authors

Rosidah Rosidah
Yuniar Mulyani
Fittrie Mellianawaty Pratiwy
Afifah Shabirah
Juli A Sinaga

Abstract

This study aims to find out the right lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates to improve the common carp body's immune system against the attack of the Aeromonas hydrophila bacterium. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolates were obtained from the organs of the common carp intestine. The study used a Completely Randomized Design consisting of four treatments and three replications. The treatment used was immersion of test fish for 24 hours in several isolates of LAB with a density of 108 cfu ml-1, namely A: without LAB isolate (control), B: isolate CcB7, C: isolate CcB8, D: isolate CcB15. Immersion is done three times with a frequency of seven days. Parameters observed included clinical symptoms, survival rate, red and white blood cell counts. The results showed the immersion of LAB isolate CcB15, namely Lactobacillus gasseri was most effective for increasing the body's resistance to Common Carp, which was demonstrated by mild clinical symptoms and faster recovery, high fish survival rate (83.33%), and number of cells the highest white blood count of 147,47x103 cell mm-3 (an increase in white blood cells by 38%).

Keywords:
Aeromonas hydrophila , clinical symptoms , fingerling of common carp , immunostimulant , lactic acid bacteria , survival rate.

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References

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Claver JA, Quaglia AIE. 2009. Comparative morphology, development, and function of blood cells. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 18: 87-97


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Djunaedi D. 2007. Effect of probiotics on immune response. Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya, 13(1): 22-27.


Dwinanti SH, Sukenda, Yuhana M, Lusi-astuti AM. 2014. Toxicity and immu-nogenicity of extracellular products of non-hemolytic Streptococcus agactiae in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Jurnal Akuakultur Rawa Indonesia, 2(1): 105-116.


Effendie MI. 1997. Biologi Perikanan. Yayasan Pustaka Nusatama. Yogyakarta. 163 halaman


Fooks LJ, Gibson GR. 2002. Probiotics as modulators of the gut flora. British Journal of Nutrition, 88(1): 39-49


Geng X, Dong XH, Tan, BP, Yang HQ, Chi YH, Liu, Y. 2012. Effects of dietary probiotic on the growth performance, non specific immunity and disease resistance of cobia, Rahycentron canadum. Aquaculture Nutrition, 18(1): 46-55.


Giri SS, Sukumaran V, Dangi NK. 2012. Characteristics of bacterial isolates from the gut of freshwater fish Labeo rohita that may be useful as potential probiotic bacteria. Probiotics Antimi-cro, 4 : 238-242.


Gómez GD, Balcázar JL. 2008. A review on the interactions between gut microbiota and innate immunity of fish. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 52(2): 145-154.


Hardi EH, Pebrianto CA. 2012. Isolation and postulant test of koch Aeromonas sp. and Pseudomonas sp. on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at the Center of Loa Kulu Cultivation in Kutai Kartanegara Regency. Jurnal Ilmu Perikanan Tropis, 16(2): 35- 39.


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Kabata Z.1985. Parasites and Diseases of Fish Cultured in Tropics. Taylor and Francis Ltd. London UK. 318 pp


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Sahoo PK, Rauta PR, Mohanty BR, Moha-patra KD, Saha JN, Rye, M. 2011. Selection of improved resistanceto Aeromonas hydrophyla in India major carp Labeo rohita: Survival and innate immune responses in first generation of resistant and susceptible lines Fish Shellfish Immunology. 31(3): 432-438.


Sekirov I, Russell SL, Atunes LCM, Finlay BB. 2010. Gut microbiota in health and disease.Physiological Reviews. 90: 859-904.


Septiarini, Harpeni E, Wardiyanto. 2012. Effect of different probiotic giving time on non-specific immune response on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tested for Aeromonas salmonicida Bacteria. Jurnal Rekayasa dan Teknoogi Budidaya Perairan. 1 (1): 58-64


Sharifuzzaman SM, Abbas A, Tinley JW, Austin B, 2011. Subcellular components of probiotic Kocuria SM1and Rhodococcus SM2 induce protective immunity in rainbow trout Oncorhyn-chus mykiss (Walbaum) against Vibrio anguillarum. Fish Shellfish Immunology, 30: 347-353.


Sugita H, Hirose Y, Matsuo N, Deguchi Y. 1998. Production of the antibacterial substance by Bacillus sp. strain NM 12, an intestinal bacterium of Japanese coastal fish. Aquaculture, 165 (3-4): 269–280.


Takahashi JDB, Urbinati EC. 2013. Fish immunology. The modification and manipulation of the innate immune system: Brazilian Studies. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 86(3): 1483-1495


Whyte SK. 2007. The innate immune response of finfish a review of current knowledge. Fish & Shellfish Immuno-logy. 23(6): 1127-1151Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. 2010. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. Saunders Elsevier Philadelphia, PA, USA.


Claver JA, Quaglia AIE. 2009. Comparative morphology, development, and function of blood cells. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 18: 87-97


Coconnier MH, Bernet MF, Chauviere G, Servin AL. 1993. Adhering heat-killed human lactobacillus acidophilus, strain lb, inhibits the process of pathogenicity of diarrhoeagenic bacteria in cultured human intestinal cells. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research. 11(4): 235-242


Djunaedi D. 2007. Effect of probiotics on immune response. Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya, 13(1): 22-27.


Dwinanti SH, Sukenda, Yuhana M, Lusi-astuti AM. 2014. Toxicity and immu-nogenicity of extracellular products of non-hemolytic Streptococcus agactiae in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Jurnal Akuakultur Rawa Indonesia, 2(1): 105-116.


Effendie MI. 1997. Biologi Perikanan. Yayasan Pustaka Nusatama. Yogyakarta. 163 halaman


Fooks LJ, Gibson GR. 2002. Probiotics as modulators of the gut flora. British Journal of Nutrition, 88(1): 39-49


Geng X, Dong XH, Tan, BP, Yang HQ, Chi YH, Liu, Y. 2012. Effects of dietary probiotic on the growth performance, non specific immunity and disease resistance of cobia, Rahycentron canadum. Aquaculture Nutrition, 18(1): 46-55.


Giri SS, Sukumaran V, Dangi NK. 2012. Characteristics of bacterial isolates from the gut of freshwater fish Labeo rohita that may be useful as potential probiotic bacteria. Probiotics Antimi-cro, 4 : 238-242.


Gómez GD, Balcázar JL. 2008. A review on the interactions between gut microbiota and innate immunity of fish. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 52(2): 145-154.


Hardi EH, Pebrianto CA. 2012. Isolation and postulant test of koch Aeromonas sp. and Pseudomonas sp. on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at the Center of Loa Kulu Cultivation in Kutai Kartanegara Regency. Jurnal Ilmu Perikanan Tropis, 16(2): 35- 39.


Harikrishnan R. Balasundaram C, Heo MS. 2010. Lactobacillus sakei BK19 enriched diet enhances the immunity status and disease resistance to streptococcosis infection in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus. Fish Shellfish Immunology, 29(6): 1037-1043.


Kabata Z.1985. Parasites and Diseases of Fish Cultured in Tropics. Taylor and Francis Ltd. London UK. 318 pp


Kaleeswaran B, Ilavenil S, Ravikumar S. 2011. Dietary suplementation with Cynodon dactylon L. Enhances innate immunity and disease resistance of Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham). Fish Shellfish Immunology, 31(6): 953 – 962.


Lipsitch M. 2001. The rice and fall of antimicrobial resistance. Trends Microbiology, 9: 438-444


Lukistyowati, Iesje dan Kurniasih. 2011. Kelangsungan hidup ikan mas (Cypri-nus carpio) yang diberi pakan ekstrak bawang putih (Alluim sativum) dan diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila. Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan, 3(1): 144-160


Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. 2016. KPDA. Pusat Data dan Statistik. Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. 112 p


Parvez S, Malik KA, Kang SA, Kim HY. 2006. Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health. Journal of Applied Microbiology 100: 1171-1185


Patriono E, Junaidi E, Setiorini A. 2009. Pengaruh pemotongan sirip terhadap pertumbuhan panjang tubuh ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio). Penelitian Sains Unsriwijaya, 9: 12-13


Perez-Morales R., Iniguez-Palomares, C., Acedo-Felix E. 2007. Evaluation of probiotic properties in Lactobacillus isolated from small intestine of piglets. Revista Latino Americana de Microbiologia . 49(3-4): 46-54.


Rawung M.E. dan H. Manoppo, 2014. The use of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cereviciae) in situ to improve the response of non-specific immune to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Jurnal Budidaya Perairan. 2(2): 7-14


Rosidah, Junianto, Lili W, Maulidya, B. 2018. Effectivity of sambiloto extract as medicine for catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) juveniles infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 5(6): 236-241


Sahoo PK, Rauta PR, Mohanty BR, Moha-patra KD, Saha JN, Rye, M. 2011. Selection of improved resistanceto Aeromonas hydrophyla in India major carp Labeo rohita: Survival and innate immune responses in first generation of resistant and susceptible lines Fish Shellfish Immunology. 31(3): 432-438.


Sekirov I, Russell SL, Atunes LCM, Finlay BB. 2010. Gut microbiota in health and disease.Physiological Reviews. 90: 859-904.


Septiarini, Harpeni E, Wardiyanto. 2012. Effect of different probiotic giving time on non-specific immune response on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tested for Aeromonas salmonicida Bacteria. Jurnal Rekayasa dan Teknoogi Budidaya Perairan. 1 (1): 58-64


Sharifuzzaman SM, Abbas A, Tinley JW, Austin B, 2011. Subcellular components of probiotic Kocuria SM1and Rhodococcus SM2 induce protective immunity in rainbow trout Oncorhyn-chus mykiss (Walbaum) against Vibrio anguillarum. Fish Shellfish Immunology, 30: 347-353.


Sugita H, Hirose Y, Matsuo N, Deguchi Y. 1998. Production of the antibacterial substance by Bacillus sp. strain NM 12, an intestinal bacterium of Japanese coastal fish. Aquaculture, 165 (3-4): 269–280.


Takahashi JDB, Urbinati EC. 2013. Fish immunology. The modification and manipulation of the innate immune system: Brazilian Studies. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 86(3): 1483-1495


Whyte SK. 2007. The innate immune response of finfish a review of current knowledge. Fish & Shellfish Immuno-logy. 23(6): 1127-1151