Main Article Content


Sunarya Wargasasmita


From 589 species freshwater fishes recorded as inhabitant of freshwater ecosystem in Sumatra, 58 species (9.8%) belong to endemic species for Sumatra. The highest endemicity by family is Belontiidae (42.3%). Based on list of aquatic biota species represented in ’’The 2000 IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species” (IUCN 2001), can be identified 14 species of freshwater fishes of Sumatra that belong to threatened species. Of these, 7 species (50%) are endemic to Sumatra i.e. Betta burdigala, B. chloropharynx (found only in Bangka Island), B. miniopinna dan B. spilotogena (found only in Bintan Island), Neolissochilus thienemanni (found only in Lake of Toba), Poropuntius tawarensis and Rasbora tawarensis (found only Lake of Laut Tawar). Geographic distribution of those endemic species were analysed by province as unit analysis. The high endemicity by province are West Sumatra (24.1 %), Jambi (20.7 %), Riau Islands (17.3 %), Nanggro Aceh Darussalam (17.3 %), and Riau (15.5%). However, nowadays those high endemicity threatened by various development activities. Factors that threaten the existence of those species were identified. AbstrakDari 589 jenis ikan air tawar yang tercatat sebagai penghuni ekosistem perairan tawar Sumatra, 58 jenis diantaranya (9,8%) termasuk kelompok ikan endemik Sumatra. Suku yang mempunyai endemisitas tertinggi adalah Belontiidae (42,3%). Berdasarkan daftar jenis biota air yang tercantum dalam “The 2000 IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species (IUCN 2001), dapat diidentifikasi 14 jenis ikan air tawar Sumatra yang terancam punah (threatened species) dan 7 jenis diantaranya (50%) adalah jenis-jenis ikan endemik Sumatra yaitu Betta burdigala, B. chloropharynx (hanya terdapat di P. Bangka), B. miniopinna dan B. spilotogena (hanya terdapat di P. Bintan), Neolissochilus thienemanni (hanya terdapat di D. Toba), Poropuntius tawarensis dan Rasbora tawarensis (hanya terdapat di D. Laut Tawar). Distribusi geografis ikan endemik Sumatra dianalisis dengan provinsi sebagai unit analisis. Provinsi yang memiliki endemitas tinggi adalah Sumatra Barat (24,1 %), Jambi (20,7 %), Kepulauan Riau (17.3 %), Nanggro Aceh Darussalam (17.3 %), dan Riau (15,5%). Endemisitas yang tinggi tersebut sekarang terancam oleh berbagai aktifitas pembangunan. Diidentifikasi pula faktor-faktor yang mengancam kelangsungan hidup ikan-ikan tersebut.

endemic species , endemicity , threatened species , geographic distribution.

Downloads article

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details


Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia

  Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:  
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.  
  b.) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.  
  c.) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).  
  Creative Commons License
Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia by Masyarakat Iktiologi Indonesia (MII) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at



llan, J.D. & A.S. Flecker 1993. Biodiversity Conservation in running waters. BioScience 43 : 32-43.

Barbour, M.G. & R.H. Minnich 1974. Fish species diversity in lakes. American Naturalist 108: 473-489.

Caldecott, J.O., Jenkins, M.D., Johnson, T. & B. Groombridge. 1994. Priorities for Conserving Global Species Richness and Endemism. WCMC Biodiversity Series No.3: 1-41.

Dudgeon, D. 2000. The Ecology of Tropical Asian Rivers and Streams in Relation to Biodiversity Conservation. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31:239-263.

Eschmeyer, W.N. 1998. Catalog of Fishes. California Academiy of Sciences. San Francisco. Revised version of Nopember 2000

Froese, R. & D. Nauly, Editors. 2000. FishBase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources. ICLARM, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, 344 p.

Groombridge, B. 1992. Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth’s Living Resources. A Report compiled by WCMC in collaboration with The Natural History Museum, London, IUCN, UNEP, WWF, and WRI. Chapman & Hall, London.

Guegan, J.F., Lek, S. & T. Oberdorff. 1998. Energy availability and habitat heteroge- nity predict riverine fish diversity. Nature 391: 382-384.

IUCN (2001). The 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, http: //www. redlist. org/info sources quality.html, 5/8/01.

Karr, J.R. and I.J. Schlosser. 1977. Impact of nearstream vegetation and stream morphology on water quality and stream biota. EPA-600/3-77-097

Kerr, J.T. 1996. Species Richness, Endemism, and the Choice of Areas for Conservation. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1094-1100.

McAllister, D.E., Craig, J.F., Davidson, N., Delany, S. & M. Seddon. 2001. Biodiversity Impacts of Large Dams. Background Paper Nr. 1 Prepared for IUCN/UNEP/WCD

McLamey, W.O. 1988. Still a dark side to the aquarium trade. Intl. Wildl. 18 (2): 46-51.

McNeely, J.A., Miller, K.R., Reid, W.V., Mittermeier, R.A. & T.B. Werner. 1990. Conserving The World’s Biological Diversity. IUCN, WRI, C.I., WWF-US, the World Bank. Gland, Switzerland, and Washington, D.C.

Moyle, P.B. & R.A. Leidy. 1992. Loss of Biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems : Evidence from fish faunas. In: Fiedler, P.L. & S.K. Jain (eds.). Conservation Biology: The theory and practice of nature conservation, preservation and management. Chapman and Hall, New York.

The World Bank, 1998. Integrating Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation with Development: Some Emerging Lessons. Natural habitats and Ecosystems Management Series, Paper No. 61, viii + 24 pp. fires/f orest evaluation en-3.pdf. Impacts of the 1997 land and forest fires, pp. 15-60.

Whitten A.J., Damanik, S.J., Anwar, J. & N. Hisyam. 1984. The Ecology of Sumatra. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.

Whitten A.J., Bishop, K.D., Nash, S.V. and L. Clayton. 1987. One or more Extinctions from Sulawesi, Indonesia ? Conservation Biology 1 (1):

Wibowo, P. & N. Suyatno. 1998. An Overview of Indonesian Wetland Sites - II: An Update Information - Included in the Indonesian Wetland Database. Wetlands International -Indonesia Program/PHPA, Bogor.

Zakaria-Ismail, M. 1994. Zoogeography and biodiversity of the freshwater fishes of Southeast Asia. Hydrobiologia 285: 41-48.


Hadiaty, RK. & D.J. Siebert 1998. Two new species of Osteochilus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Sungai Lembang, Suag Balimbing Research Station, Gunung Leuser National Park, Aceh, northwestern Sumatra. Revue fr. Aquariol., 25: 1-4.

Kottelat, M. 1991a. Notes on the taxonomy of some Sundaic and Indochinese species of Rasbora, with description of four new species (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 2 (2): 177-191.

Kottelat, M. 1991b. Notes on the taxonomy and distribution of some Western Indonesian freshwater fishes, with diagnoses of a new genus and six new species (Fishes : Cyprinidae, Belontiidae, and Chaudhuriidae. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 2 (3): 273-287.

Kottelat, M., Whitten, A.J., Kartikasari, S.N. & S. Wirjoatodjo, 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hongkong.

Kottelat, M. & P.K.L. Ng. 1994. Diagnoses of five new species of fighting fishes from Banka and Borneo (Teleostei: Belontiidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 5(1): 65-78.

Kottelat, M. 1995. Gymnochanda limi, a new species of glassperch from Sumatra (Teleostei: Chandidae). Cybium 19: 55-59.

Kottelat, M. 1996. The identity of Puntius eugramus and diagnosis of two new species of striped barbs from Southeast Asia (Teleostei, Cyprinidae). Raffles Bull. Zool. 44 (1): 312-316.

Kottelat, M. & A.J. Whitten, 1996. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi: Additions & Corrections. Periplus Editions, Hongkong, 8 pp.

Kottelat, M. & P.K.L. Ng. 1998. Parosphromenus bintan, a new osphronemid fish from Bintan and Bangka islands, Indonesia, with redescription of P. deissneri. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 8 (3): 263-272.

Ng, P.K.L. & K.K.P. Lim. 1991. The identity of Ophiocephalus cyanospilos Bleeker from Sumatra, and a new record of Channa bankanensis (Bleeker) from Peninsular

Malaysia (Pisces: Channidae). Raffles Bull. Zool. 39 (1): 119-130

Ng, P.K.L. & M. Kottelat. 1994. Revision of the Betta waseri species group (Teleostei: Belontiidae). Raffles Bull. Zool. 42(3): 593611.

Ng, H.H. 1996. Akysis heterurus, a new species of catfish (Teleostei: Akysidae) from eastern Sumatra. Raffles Bull. Zool. 44: 3-10.

Ng, H.H. & M. Kottelat. 1998. Hyalobagrus, a new genus of miniature bagrid catfish from Southeast Asia (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 9: 335-346.

Ng, H.H. & H.H. Tan. 2000. A new species of Encheloclarias from Sumatra. J. Fish Biol., 57: 536-539.

Tan, H.H. & S.H. Tan 1994a. Betta miniopinna, a new species of fighting fish from Bintan, Riau Archipelago, Indonesia (Teleostei: Belontiidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 5 (1): 41-44.

Tan, S.H. & H.H.Tan. 1994b. The freshwater fishes of Pulau Bintan, Riau Archipelago, Sumatra, Indonesia. Tropical Biodiversity 2: 351-367.

Tan, H.H. & P.K.L. Ng. 1996. Redescription of Betta bellica Sauvage, 1884 (Teleostei: Belontiidae), with description of a new allied species from Sumatra. Raffles Bull. Zool. 44: 143-155.

Tan, H.H. & H.H. Ng. 2000. The catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) of Central Sumatra. J. Nat. Hist., 34: 267-303

Weber, M., & L.F. de Beaufort 1913. Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Vol. II, E.J. Brill., Leiden.

Weber, M., & L.F. de Beaufort 1916. Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Vol. Ill, E.J. Brill., Leiden.

Weber, M., & L.F. de Beaufort 1922. Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Vol. IV, E.J. Brill., Leiden.

Weber, M., & L.F. de Beaufort 1929. Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Vol. V, E.J. Brill., Leiden.

Weber, M., & L.F. de Beaufort 1931. Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Vol. VI, E.J. Brill., Leiden.

Weber, M., & L.F. de Beaufort 1936. Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Vol. VII, E.J. Brill., Leiden.

Weber, M., & L.F. de Beaufort 1951. Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Vol. VIII, E.J. Brill., Leiden.

Weber, M., & L.F. de Beaufort 1952 . Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Vol. IX, E.J. Brill., Leiden.

Weber, M., & L.F. de Beaufort 1953 . Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Vol. X, E.J. Brill., Leiden.

Weber, M., & L.F. de Beaufort 1962 . Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Vol. XI, E.J. Brill.,Leiden..