Dietary free glutamine supplementation to increase physiological responses and survival rate of clown loach juvenile, Chromobotia macracanthus Bleeker, 1852

Siti Murniasih, Dedi Jusadi, Mia Setiawati, Sri Nuryati


Clown loach Chromobotia macracanthus is one of Indonesian native species and as a key species for ornamental aquaculture. The problem in mass production of this species are the low of growth rate which causes a long period of rearing and low of survival rate. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate free glutamine supplementation at different doses in diet to increase physiological response, growth performance and survival rate of clown loach. Expe-rimental diets contained four different free glutamine levels, viz 0, 1, 2 and 3%. These diets were given to six repli-cate groups of 50 juvenile clown loaches. The fish were reared in each aquarium with dimensions of 40×30×30 cm3 for 60 days. Fish were fed four times a day at satiation. Parameters observed including intestinal glutamine concen-tration, villous and intestinal morphometry, intestinal protease activity, feed efficiency, nutrient retention, growth performance, survival rate, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The results showed that supplementation of 1% free glutamine significantly affected the morphometry of villi. The length and surface area of villi at a dose of 1% showed the highest values i.e., 320.44 ± 10.39 μm and 27,046.79 ± 250.54 μm2, respect-ively. The 1% dose also had a significant effect on protease activity (13.57 ± 1.92 mg units of protein-1) compared to the 0% dose. The 2% dose showed the highest SOD activity (0.82 ± 0.07 mg protein-1 unit) and the lowest MDA level was found at a dose of 3% (0.25 ± 0.02 nmol mg protein-1). Feed consumption with the supplementation of free glutamine has a significant effect on survival rate with the highest value reached 97.00 ± 1.00%, but no significant effect on intestinal morphometry, feed efficiency, nutrient retention and growth performance. Dietary with the sup-plementation of free glutamine is not able to improve growth performance, but can improve the physiological res-ponse and survival rate.


clown loach; free glutamine; physiological response; survival rate

Full Text:



Bakke-McKellep AM, Penn HM, Salas PM, Refstie S, Sperstad S, Landsverk T, Ringø E, Krogdah AS.2007. Effects of dietary soybean meal, inulin and oxyte-tracycline on intestinal microbiota and epithelial cell stress, apoptosis and pro-liferation in the teleost Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). British Journal of Nu-trition, 97(4): 699-713.

Barbosa R, Guimaraes S, Vasconcelos P, Cha-ves C. 2006. Metabolic effects of l-alanyl-glutamine in burned rats. Burns, 32(6): 721-727.

Bergmeyer HU, Grossl M, Walter HE. 1983. Samples, reagents, assessment of results Vol. 2, In: Bergemeyer HU (ed). Me-thods in enzymatic analysis 3rd edition. Academic Press, The University of Mi-chigan. 539 p.

Boza JJ, Maire JC, Bovetto L. 2000. Plasma glutamine response to enteral adminis-tration of gluatmie in human volunteers (free glutamine versus protein-bound glutamine). Nutrition, 16(11-12): 1037-1042.

Buentello JA, Gatlin DM. 2000. The dietary arginine requirement of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is influenced by endogenous synthesis of arginine from glutamic acid. Aquaculture, 188(3-4): 311-321.

Cheng ZY, Buentello A, Gatlin DM. 2011. Effects of dietary arginine and glutamine on growth performance, immune respon-ses and intestinal structure of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Aquaculture, 319(1-2): 247-252.

Coutinho F, Castro C, Palomares ER, Grande BO, Gallardo MA, Teles AO, Peres H. 2016. Dietary glutamine supplementation effect on amino acid metabolism, intesti-nal nutrient absorption capacity and anti-oxidant response of gilthead sea bream Sparatus aurata juveniles. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A, 191: 9-17.

Harris R, Hoffman JR, Allsopp A, Routledge NBH. 2012. L-glutamine absorption is enhanced after ingestion of L-alanyl glu-tamine compared with the free amino acid or wheat protein. Nutrition Re-search, 32(4): 272-277.

Huisman EA. 1987. The Principles of Fish Cul-ture Production. Department of Aquacul-ture. Wageningen University. Nether-land. 170 p.

Igodharo OM, Akinloye OA. 2018. First line defence antioxidants-superoxide dismu-tase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathi-one peroxidase (GPX): Their fundamen-tal role in the entire antioxidant defence grid. Alexandria Journal of Medicine, 54(8): 287-293.

Iji PA, Saki A, Tivey DR. 2001. Body and intestinal growth of broiler chicks on commercial starter diet. I. intestinal weight and mucosal development. British Poultry Science, 42(4): 505-513.

Jiang J, Zheng T, Zhou XQ, Liu Y, Feng L. 2009. Influence of glutamine and vitamin E on growth and antioxidant capacity of fish enterocytes. Aquaculture Nutrition, 15(4): 409-414.

Kottelat M, Whitten AJ, Kartikasari SN, Wirjo-atmodjo. 1993. Freshwater fishes of western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Hong-kong (HK). Periplus Editions. 221 p.

Lin Y, Zhou XQ. 2006. Dietary glutamine supplementation improves structure and function of intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Aquaculture, 256(1-4): 389-394.

Liu J, Mai K, Xu W, Zhang Y, Zhou H, Ai Q. 2015.Effects of dietary glutamine on survival, growth performance, activities of digestive enzyme, antioxidant status and hypoxia stress resistance of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglosus semi-laevis Günther) post larvae. Aquaculture, 446: 48-56.

Misra HP, Fridovich I. 1972. The role of super-oxide anion in the autoxidation of epine-phrine and simple assay for superoxide dismutase. Journal of Biological Chemi-stry, 247(12): 3170-3175.

Newsholme P. 2001. Why is L-glutamine meta-bolism important to cells of the immune system in health, postinjury, surgery or infection. Journal of Nutrition, 131(9 Suppl): 2515-2522.

Permana A, Priyadi A, Ginanjar R, Hadie W, Alimuddin. 2015. Pemberian rekombinan hormon pertumbuhan ikan kerapu ker-tang rEIGH secara oral melalui pakan alami pada benih ikan botia (Chromo-botia macracanthus Bleeker 1852). In: Sugama K, Kristanto AH, Radiarta IN, Lusiastuti AM, Kusdiarti, Priono B, In-san I, Dewi RRSPS, Gardenia L (Editor). 2015. Prosiding Forum Inovasi Akuakul-tur. Bogor 8-9 Juni 2015. Pusat Peneliti-an dan Pengembangan Perikanan Budi daya. Jakarta. pp 303-309.

Petra GB, Robert JN, Alexander PJH, Sybren M, Paul AM, Van L. 2001. Glutamine alimentation in catabolic state. Journal of Nutrition, 131(9): 2569S-2577S.

Pohlenz C, Buentello A, Bakke AM, Gatlin DM. 2012. Free dietary glutamine improves intestinal morphology and increases ente-rocyte migration rates, but has limited effects on plasma amino acid profile and growth performance of channel cat fish Ictalurus punctatus. Aquaculture, 370-371: 32-39.

Singh RP, Murthy KNC, Jayaprakasha GK. 2002. Studies on antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extract using in vitro model. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(1): 81-86.

Sharma P, Jha AB, Dubey RS, Pessarakli M. 2012. Reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and antioxidative defense me-chanism in plants under stressful condi-tions. Journal of Botany, 2012: 1-26.

Slembrouck. J, Priyadi A, Permana A, Ginanjar R, Baras E, Satyani D, Sudarto, Pouyaud L, Legendre M. 2012. Biology and cul-ture of the clown loach Chromobotia macracanthus (Cypriniformes, Cobiti-dae): 2-Importance of water movement and temperature during egg incubation. Aquatic Living Resource, 25(2): 109-118.

Wang CA, Xu QY, Xu H, Zhu Q, Yang JL, Sun DJ. 2011. Dietary L-alanyl-L-glutamine supplementation improves growth per-formance and physiological function of hybrid sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii♀ × A. Baerii ♂. Journal of Applied Ichthyo-logy, 27(2): 727-732.

Watanabe T. 1988. Fish nutrition and maricul-ture. Department of aquatic Bioscience. Tokyo University of Fisheries. Japan International Cooperation Agency. 233 p.

Windmueller HG, Spaeth AE. 1980. Respitory fuels and nitrogen metabolism in vivo in small intestine of red rats: quantitative importance of glutamine, glutamate, and aspartate. Journal of Biological Chemis-try, 255(1):107-112.

Wu G, Knabe DA, Flynn NE. 1994. Synthesis of citrulline from glutamine in pig ente-rocytes. Biochemical Journal, 299(1): 115-121.

Wu G, Bazer FW, Johnson GA, Knabe DA, Burghardt RC, Spencer TE, Li XL,Wang JJ. 2011. Triennial growth symposium: important roles for L- glutamine in swine nutrition and production. Journal of Animal Science, 89(7): 2017-2030.

Xi P, Jiang Z, Zheng C, Lin Y, Wu G. 2011. Regulation of protein metabolisme by glutamine: implications for nutrition and health. Frontiers in Bioscience, 16(2): 578-597.

Xu H, Zhu Q, Wang C, Zhao Z, Luo L, Wang LS, Li J , Xu QY. 2014. Effect of dietary alanyl-glutamine supplementation on growth performance, development of intestinal tract, antioxidant status and plasma non-specific immunity of young mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio). Journal of Northeast Agricultural University, 21(4): 37-46.

Article Metrics

   Abstract views: 46   PDF views or download: 11


Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


  • There are currently no refbacks.