Production performance and physiology response of Anguilla bicolor bicolor rearing with a wet, damp and dry system

Eko Harianto, Eddy Supriyono, Tatag Budiardi, Ridwan Affandi, Yani Hadiroseyani


Aquaculture is is often constrained by the availability of water, both in quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum maintenance system of elver (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) on a wet, moist and dry system through production performance studies and physiological responses. The research was conducted from August to September 2018 at the Production Technic and Management of Aquaculture Laboratory, Department of Aquaculture, IPB University. A completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replications was used in this study, namely treatment with high water wet system 0% of body height (A), high water wet system 50% of body height (B), high water wet system 100% of body height (C), moist system (D), and dry system (E). The body weight of elver was 18.80 ± 0.62 g which derived from fish cultivator in Bogor, West Java. Fish was fed 3 times per day at satiation with commercial feed which a protein content of 50%. Results showed that treatment C was the best result with survival rate of 100%, the specific growth rate of 0.45% day -1, the absolute growth rate of 0.07 g day 1 and feed conversion ratio of 6.57. The analysis of variance showed that the treatments showed the significant effect (P <0.05). The blood glucose value closest to the eel condition before treatment was found in the treatment C.


eel; dry system; moist system; physiological responses; wet system

Full Text:



Affandi R, Budiardi T, Wahju RI, Taurusman AA. 2013. Pemeliharaan ikan sidat dengan sistem air bersirkulasi. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, 18(1): 55-60

Andayani S, Marsoedi, Sanoesi E, Wilujeng AE, H Suprastiani. 2009. Profil Hematologi Beberapa Spesies Ikan Air Tawar Budidaya. UB Press, Malang.

Angka SL, Mokoginta I, Hamid H. 1990. Anatomi dan Histologi Banding Beberapa Ikan Air Tawar yang Dibudidayakan di Indonesia. Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Direktorat Jenderal Pendi-dikan Tinggi. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor. 146 p.

Baras E, Raynaud T, Slembrouck J, Caruso D, Cochet C, Legendre M. 2011. Interactions between temperature and size on the growth, size heterogeneity, mortality, and cannibalism in cultured larvae and juveniles of the Asian catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage). Aquaculture Research, 42(2): 260– 276

Berg T, Steen JB. 1965. Physiological mechanisms for aerial respiration in the eel. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 15(4):469–484

Blaxhall PC, Daishley KW. 1973. Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood. Journal of Fish Biology, 5(6): 771-781.

Caruso G, Maricchiolo G, Micale V, Genovese L, Caruso R, Denaro MG. 2010. Physiological responses to starvation in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla): effects on haematological, biochemical, non-specific immune parameters and skin structures. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 36(1):71–83

Cruz-neto AP, Steffensen JF. 1997. The effects of acute hypoxia and hypercapnia on oxygen consumption of the freshwater European eel. Journal of Fish Biology 50(4): 759–769

Diansyah S, Budiardi T, Sudrajat AO. 2014. Kinerja pertumbuhan Anguilla bicolor bicolor bobot awal 3 g dengan kepadatan berbeda. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia, 13(1): 46-53.

Djajasewaka H. 2003. Pengaruh pemberian pakan buatan dalam bentuk pelet, pasta dan campuran keduanya terhadap pertumbuhan benih sidat (Anguilla bicolor). In: Budiman (editor). Prosiding Sumber daya Perikanan Sidat Trofik. UPT Baruna Jaya, BPPT. pp. 55-58

Evans DH, Piermarini PM, Choe KP. 2005. The multifunctional fish gill: dominant site of gas exchange, osmoregulation, acid-base regulation, and excretion of nitrogenous waste. Physiological Reviews, 85(1): 97–177

[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. 2018. FAO Yearbook, Fishery and Aquaculture Statistic 2016. Rome. 108 p.

Fange R. 1976. Gas exchange in the swimbladder. In: Hughes GM. (ed.) Respiration of Amphibious Vertebrates. Academic Press. London. pp. 189-211.

Fontaine YA, Pisam M, Le Moal C, Rambourg A. 1995. Silvering and gill “mitochondria-rich cells" in the eel, Anguilla anguilla. Cell Tissue Research, 281(3): 465–471.

Fekri L, Affandi R, Budiardi T. 2014. Tingkat pemberian pakan sidat Anguilla bicolor bicolor: ukuran 1–2 g. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia, 13(1): 21–27.

Fekri L, Affandi R, Rahardjo MF, Budiardi T, Simanjuntak CPH, Fauzan T, Indrayani. 2018. The effect of temperature on the physiological condition and growth performance of freshwater eel elver Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844). Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia, 17(2): 181-190.

Fekri L, Affandi R, Rahardjo MF, Budiardi T, Simanjuntak CPH. 2019. Pertumbuhan elver Anguilla bicolor McClelland, 1844 pasca pembantutan yang dipelihara di media semi alami. Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia, 19(2): 243-257.

Ferguson RA, Tufts BL. 1992. Physiological effects of brief air exposure in exhaustively exercised rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): implications for “catch and release” fisheries. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 49(6): 1157–1162.

Forster ME. 1981. Oxygen consumption and apnoea in the shortfin eel, Anguilla australis schmidtii. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 15(1): 85-90

Goddard S. 1996. Feed Management in Intensive Aquaculture. Chapman and Hall. New York. 194 p.

Graham JB 1997. Air-breathing fishes. Evolution, diversity and adaptation. Academic Press. San Diego.

Handajani H, Widanarni, Budiardi T, Setiawati M, Sujono. 2018. Phytoremediation of Eel (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) rearing wastewater using amazon sword (Echinodorus amazonicus) and water jasmine (Echinodorus palaefolius). Omni-Akuatika, 14(2): 43 – 51.

Harianto E, Budiardi T, Sudrajat AO. 2014. Growth performance of 7-g Anguilla bicolor bicolor at different density. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia, 13(2): 120–131.

Herianti I. 2005. Rekayasa lingkungan untuk memacu perkembangan ovarium ikan sidat Anguilla bicolor. Jurnal Oseanologi Limnologi Indonesia, 37(5): 25–41.

Huisman EA. 1987. Principles of Fish Production. University Press. Wageningen Agricultural Netherland. 296 p.

Hyde DA, Perry SF. 1987. Acid-base and ionic regulation in the American eel (Anguilla rostrata) during and after prolonged aerial exposure-branchial and renal adjustments. Journal of Experimental Biology, 133(1): 429-447.

Hyde DA, Moon TW, Perry SF. 1987. Physiological consequences of prolonged aerial exposure in the American eel, Anguilla rostrata -blood respiratory and acid-base status. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology, 157(5): 635-642.

[KKP] Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. 2017. Marine and Fishery Statistics. Data in 2014. KKP RI, Jakarta 63 p.

Lefevre S, Bayley M, McKenzie DJ. 2016. Measuring oxygen uptake in fishes with bimodal respiration. Journal of Fish Biology, 88(1): 206–231.

Lemoigne J, Soulier P, Peyraudwaitzenegger M, Peyraud C. 1986. Cutaneous and gill O2 uptake in the European Eel (Anguilla anguilla L) in relation to ambient PO2, 10-400 Torr. Respiration Physiology, 66(3): 341-354.

Luo M, Guan R, Li Z, Jin H. 2013. The effects of water temperature on the survival, feeding, and growth of the juveniles of Anguilla marmorata and Anguilla bicolor pacifica. Aquaculture, 400-401: 61–64.

Mistry AC, Honda S, Hirata T, Kato A, Hirose S. 2001. Eel urea transporter is localized to chloride cells and is salinity dependent. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 281(5): 1594-1604.

Moron SE, de Andrade, Arilson, Narciso Fernandez MA. 2009. Response of mucous cells of the gills of traíra (Hoplias malabaricus) and jeju (Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus) (Teleostei: Erythrinidae) to hypo-and hyper-osmotic ion stress. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7(3): 491-498.

Mott JC. 1951. The gross anatomy of the blood vascular system of the eel Anguilla anguilla. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. London 120: 503-518.

Mumford S, Heidel J, Smith C, Morrison J, Mac Connell B, Blazer V. 2007. Fish Histology and Histopathology. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service-National Conservation Training Center. 〈〉.

Nielsen T, Prouzet P. 2008. Capture-based aquaculture of the wild European eel (Anguilla anguilla). In: Lovatelli A & Holthus PF (eds). Capture-based aquaculture. Global overview. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 508. Rome, FAO. pp. 141–168.

NRC. 2011. Nutrient Requirement of Warmwater Fishes and Shellfishes. National Academy of Science Press. Washington DC.

Perry SF. 1997. The chloride cells: structure and function in the gills of freshwater fishes. Annual Review of Physiology, 59(1): 325–347.

Pike C, Crook V, Gollock M. 2019. Anguilla australis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. UK. 31 p.

Ponsen S, Narkkong NA, Pamok S, Aengwanich W. 2009. Comparative hematological values, morphometric and morphological observation of the blood cell in capture and culture asian eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew). American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 4(2): 32-36.

Sahan A, Altun T, Cevik F, Cengizler I, Nevsat E, Ercurment Genc. 2007. Comparative study of some haematological parameters in European eel Anguilla anguilla L. (1758) caught from different regions of Ceyhan river (Adana, Turkey). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 24(1-2): 167–171.

Sandrayani, Lumbessy SY, Damayanti AA. 2013. Pengaruh media pengisi terhadap kelangsungan hidup udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei) pada transportasi sistem kering. Jurnal Perikanan Unram, 1(2): 20-27.

Scabra AR, Budiardi T, Djokosetiyanto D. 2016. Kinerja produksi Anguilla bicolor bicolor dengan penambahan CaCO3 pada media budidaya. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia, 15(1): 1–7.

Setiawati M, Mokoginta I, Suprayudi MA, Manalu W. 2007. Pengaruh penambahan mi-neral Fe pada pakan ikan terhadap status kesehatan ikan kerapu bebek. Jurnal Per-ikanan dan Kelautan, 12(1): 55-63.

Shiraishi H, Crook V. 2015. Eel Market Dynamics: An Analysis of Anguilla Production, Trade and Consumption in East Asia. Traffic, Tokyo.

Steel GD, Torrie JH. 1981. Prinsip-prinsip dan Prosedur Statistika. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta, 747 p.

Suski CD, Killen SS, Cooke SJ, Kieffer JD, Philipp DP, Tufts BL. 2004. Physiological significance of the weight-in during live-release angling tournaments for largemouth bass. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 133(6): 1291–1303.

Svobodova Z, Vykusova B, Modra H, Jarkovsky J, Smutna M, 2006. Haematological and biochemical profile of harvest-size carp during harvest and post- harvest stroge. Aquaculture Research, 37(10): 959-965.

Taufiq N, Definta VM, Ario. 2017. Pengaruh volume air pada media terhadap pertumbuhan panjang dan berat ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor bicolor). Buletin Oseanografi Marina, 6(2): 117–121.

Tesch FW. 2003. The Eel. Blackwell Science Ltd. Oxford.

Thompson LA, Cooke SJ, Donaldson MR, Hanson KC, Gingerich A, Klefoth T, Arlinghaus R. 2008. Physiology, behavior, and survival of angled and air-exposed largemouth bass. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 28(4): 1059-1068.

Tseng KF, Wu KL. 2004. The ammonia removal cycle for a submerged biofilter used in a recirculating eel culture system. Aquacultural Engineering, 31(1-2): 17–30.

Tsukamoto K, Kuroki M. (ed.). 2014. Eels and humans. Humanity and the sea. Springer. Japan. 186 p.

van Waarde A, van den Thillart G, Kesbeke F. 1983. Anaerobic energy metabolism of the European Eel, Anguilla-Anguilla l. Journal of Comparative Physiology 149(4): 469-475.

Wedemeyer GA,Yasutake WT. 1977. Clinical methods for the assessment of the effect environmental stres on fish health. US Department of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service Technical Paper 89: 1–17.

Article Metrics

   Abstract views: 60   PDF views or download: 20


Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


  • There are currently no refbacks.