Masculinization of featherfin squeaker Synodontis eupterus Boulenger, 1901 larvae using javanese long pepper extract Piper retrofractum and increased rearing temperature

Euis Rakhmawati, Muhammad Zairin Jr, Dinar Tri Soelistyowati


Javanese long pepper (Piper retrofractum) is known to have androgenic effect, could act as phytosteroid and alternative to masculinization. This research aimed to evaluate the optimum dose of the Javanese long pepper extracts combined with increased rearing temperature on featherfin squeaker masculinization through larva immersion. This research was designed using a completely randomized design with 8 treatments consisted of Javanese long pepper extract doses of 0.0625 mg L-1and 0.125 mg L-1, negative control (without both extract and 17α-metiltestosterone) and positive control (2 mg L-117α-metiltestosterone). Each of them consisted of two different temperature treatments, namely, normal (26-27C) and 32C. After five hours treatment, larvae were reared until five months age. The fish age four and then five months were dissected and their gonads were taken for acetocarmine and histology preparation. Beside that the percentage of fish survival, body length, weight gain, and specific growth rate were also recorded in certain period. The result showed that the Javanese long pepper extract dose at 0.125 mg L-1 with normal temperature treatment produced the highest male ratio and significantly different compare with control. Giving this dose to larvae did not affect fish survival and growth, meanwhile increased temperature treatment could not increase the effectivity of Javanese long pepper extract.


long pepper extract; immersion; masculinization; Synodontis sp

Full Text:



Baroiller JF, Chourrout D, Fostier A, Jalabert B. 1995. Temperature and sex chromosomes govern sex ratios of the mouthbrooding cichlid fish Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of Experimental Zoologi, 273(3): 216-223.

Barriuso B, Arrazola AO, Carreno MM, Astiasaran I, Ansorena D. 2012. Sterols heating: Degradation and formation of their ring-structure polar oxidation pro-ducts. Food Chemistry,135(2): 706-712.

Dada AA, Ogunduyile FD. 2011. Effects of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) on sperm quality of African catfish, Clarias ga-riepinus (Burchell, 1822) broodstock. Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 6(6): 655-661.

El-Fotoh EMA, Ayyat MS, El-Rahman GAA, Farag ME. 2014. Mono sex male produc-tion in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus using different water temperature. Zaga-zig Journal of Agricultural Research, 41(1): 1-8.

Elisdiana Y, Zairin Jr M, Soelistyowati DT, Widanarni. 2016. Induksi pematangan gonad ikan patin siam Pangasianodon hypopthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) jantan dengan pemberian ekstrak cabe jawa Piper retrofractum Vahl. melalui pakan. Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia, 16(1): 35-44.

Gardeur JN, Mathis N, Kobilinsky A, Brun-Bellut J. 2007. Simultaneous effects of nutritional and environmental factors on growth and flesh quality of Perca fluvia-tilis using a fractional factorial design study. Aquaculture, 273(1): 50-63.

Guerrero III RD, Shelton WL. 1974. An aceto-carmine squash method for sexing juve-nile fishes. The Progressive Fish-Culturist, 36(1): 56-56.

Jodun WA, Millard MJ, Mohler J. 2002. The ef-fect of rearing density on growth, survi-val, and feed conversion of juvenile atlantic sturgeon. North American Jour-nal of Aquaculture, 64(1): 10-15.

Lee KH, Yamaguchi A, Rashid H, Kadomura K, Yasumoto S, Matsuyama M. 2009. Estradiol-17β treatment induces inter-sexual gonadal development in the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes. Zoological Science, 26(9): 639-645.

Phelps RP, Popma TJ. 2000. Sex reversal of tilapia. Di dalam: Costa-Pierce BA dan Rakocy JE, editor. Tilapia Aquaculture in the Americas.Volume 2. World

Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (US): p 39-59.

Raghuveer K, Senthilkumaran, Sudhakumari CC, Sridevi P, Rajakumar A, Singh R, Murugananthkumar R, Majumdar KC. 2011. Dimorphic expression of various transcription factor and steroidogenic enzyme genes during gonadal ontogeny in the air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Sexual Development. 5(4): 213-223.

Rivero-Wendt CLG, Miranda-Vilela AL, Ferreira MFN, Amorim FS, da Silva VAG, H Louvandini, Grisolia CK. 2013. Lack of genotoxicity in Astyanax bima-culatus and Oreochromis niloticus of 17α-methyltestosterone used in fish hatcheries to produce male monosex populations. Genetics and Molecular Research,12(3): 3862-3870.

Shinkafi BA, Daneji AI. 2011. Morphology of the gonads of Synodontis eupterus (Boulenger) from River Rima, North-western Nigeria. International Journal of Zoological Research, 7(6): 382-392.

Suresh D, Manjunatha H, Srinivasan K. 2007. Effect of heat processing of spices on the concentrations of their bioactive princi-ples: turmeric (Curcuma longa), red pep-per(Capsicum annuum) and black pepper (Piper nigrum). Food Composition and Analysis, 20(3-4): 346-351.

Wijaya PDD, Zairin Jr M, Soelistyowati DT, Widanarni. 2017. Synodontis euperus larvae masculinization using javanese long pepper extract (Piper retrofractum). Omni-Akuatika, 13(1): 103-109.

Winarni D. 2007. Efek ekstrak akar ginseng ja-wa dan korea terhadap libido mencit jan-tan pada prakondisi testosteron rendah. Berkala Penelitian Hayati, 12(2): 153–159.

Zairin Jr. M. 2002. Seks Reversal: Memproduksi Benih Ikan Jantan atau Betina. Penebar Swadaya. Jakarta. 95 p.

Article Metrics

   Abstract views: 148   PDF views or download: 25


Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


  • There are currently no refbacks.