The effectiveness of LED light spectrum exposure on growth and color performance of orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula (Lacèpède, 1802) juvenile


Ris Dewi Novita, Kukuh Nirmala, Eddy Supriyono, Idil Ardi
 DOI  https://doi.org/10.32491/jii.v19i1.410

Abstract

Orange clownfish is one of the most desired marine ornamental fish by global market due to the orange color on it. The obstacles of the clownfish farming is the changes of the orange color on clownfish. Manipulation of the light spectrum exposure may affect the amount of chromatophore, that can change the color of clownfish become brighter. The present study was aimed at determining an appropriate spectrum of LED light toward growth and color quality of Amphiprion percula juvenile farming. The study was conducted in five treatments with three replication. The treatment consists of four types of LED light with different wavelengths i.e., white (P), red (M), green (H) and blue (B) with 12 hours and control. Clownfish with an average body weight of 0.91±0.19 g and length of 3.28±0.24 cm were used in this study. The result after 60 days showed that the blue LED light give the best glucose levels of 40.00±2.65 mg dL-1, malondialdehyde levels of 9.30±0.29 nmol mL-1, specific growth rate of 1.71±0.05% and feed efficiency of 78.23±1.97%. The best color quality parameters on blue LED light treatment with the Toca color finder (TCF) score reach the orange color on the dorsal, caudal and anal, RGB ratio on the color of the dorsal, caudal and anal each of 64.59±1.00%, 68.12±0.74% and 72.56±0.20% as well as the number of chromatophore each of 346±10 cells/ 0.1 mm-2. The spectrum blue LED light was able to result the growth and quality of best color for clownfish Amphiprion percula juvenile.

Abstrak

Ikan badut Amphiprion percula merupakan ikan hias air laut yang diminati pasar global ikan hias karena memiliki daya tarik tersendiri pada warna jingga yang dimilikinya. Ikan badut hasil budi daya memiliki kualitas warna jingga yang cenderung memudar. Penggunaan manipulasi spektrum cahaya dalam sistem budi daya dapat memengaruhi perubahan jumlah kromatofor yang dapat meningkatkan warna ikan menjadi terang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan spektrum cahaya lampu LED yang tepat terhadap pertumbuhan dan kualitas warna yuwana ikan badut. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pada lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri atas empat jenis spektrum cahaya lampu LED dengan panjang gelombang berbeda yakni putih (P), merah (M), hijau (H) dan biru (B) dengan lama penyinaran 12 jam dan kontrol. Rerata panjang total awal ikan uji adalah 3,28±0,24 cm dan bobot 0,91±0,19 g. Hasil penelitian selama 60 hari pemeliharaan menunjukkan bahwa parameter respons fisiologis dan pertumbuhan terbaik adalah pada perlakuan lampu LED biru dengan kadar glukosa sebesar 40,00±2,65 mg dL-1, kadar malondialdehyde (MDA) sebesar 9,30±0,29 nmol mL-1, laju pertumbuhan spesifik (LPS) sebesar 1,71±0,05% dan efisiensi pakan (EP) sebesar 78,23±1,97%. Parameter kualitas warna terbaik pada perlakuan lampu LED biru dengan skor dalam Toca color finder (TCF) mencapai warna jingga pada bagian dorsal, caudal dan anal, red,green and blue (RGB) ratio pada warna bagian dorsal, caudal dan anal masing-masing sebesar 64,59±1,00%, 68,12±0,74%, dan 72,56±0,20% serta jumlah kromatofor sebesar 346±10 sel/ 0,1 mm-2. Spektrum cahaya lampu LED biru menghasilkan pertumbuhan dan kualitas warna terbaik pada yuwana ikan badut Amphiprion percula.

Keywords

Amphiprion percula; color quality; LED light spectrum

Full Text:

PDF

References

Aras AK, Nirmala K, Soelistyowati DT, Sudarto. 2015. Manipulasi spektrum cahaya terhadap pertumbuhan dan kualitas warna yuwana ikan botia Chromobotia macracanthus (Bleeker, 1852). Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia, 15(1): 45-55

Barrier RA. 2017. Sustainable aquatics Clownfish. [Internet]. [diunduh pada 31 Agustus 2017]. Tersedia pada http://www.barrierreefaquariums.com/productcart/pc/Sustainable_Aquatis_Clownfish_c459.htm?pageStyle=h&ProdSort=19&page=2&idCategory=459&viewAll=yes

Bonga SEW. 1997. The stress response in fish. Physiologic Reviews, 7(3): 591-625

Boyd CE, Tucker CS. 1998. Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management. Springer Science+Business Media. New York (US): 700 p

Boyd CE. 2003. Guidelines for aquaculture effluent management at the farm-level. Aquaculture, 226(1-4): 101– 112

Choi CY, Shin HS, Choi YJ, Kim NN, Lee J, Kil GS. 2012. Effect of LED light spectra on starvation-induced oxidative stress in the cinnamon clownfish Amphiprion melanopus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A, 163(3-4): 357-363

Cronin TW, Johnsen S, Marshall J, Warrant EJ. 2014. Visual Ecology. Princeton University Press. Oxford(UK): 405 p

[DJPB] Direktorat Jenderal Perikanan Budidaya. 2017. Statistik Produksi Budidaya Ikan Hias Indonesia. Jakarta

Evans DH, Claiborne JB, Currie S. 2014. The Physiology of Fishes 4ed. CRC Press. New York (US). 441 p

Fautin DG, Allen GR. 1992. Field guide to anemone fishes and their host sea anemones. [Internet]. [diunduh pada 31 Desember 2018]. Tersedia pada http://www. http://eqzotica.ucoz.ru/_ld/0/9_ANEMONES.pdf

Fingerman M. 1965. Chromatophores. Physiologic Reviews, 45(2): 296-339

Fujii R. 2000. The Regulation of motile activity in fish chromatophores. Pigment Cell Research, 13(5): 300-319

Goddard S. 1996. Feed Management in Intensive Aquaculture. Chapman and Hall. New York (US): 194 p

Gopakumar G. 2005. Marine ornamental fish culture status, constraints and potential. Ramamurthy S, Alagaraja K, Vivekanandan E, Mohanraj G, Sreenivasan PV, Rajagopalan S (Editor). Proceedings. Ocean Life Food and Medicine Expo 2004. India 27-29 February 2004. Aquaculture Foundation of India. pp. 347-359

Gunawan BK. 2017. Manipulasi spektrum cahaya lampu LED terhadap respons fisiologis dan kinerja pertumbuhan ikan gurami strain Padang Osphronemus gouramy Lacepede. Tesis. Sekolah Pascasarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor. 40 hlm

Hamzah M, Suprayudi MA, Utomo NBP, Manalu W. 2012. Pertumbuhan dan daya tahan tubuh juvenil ikan kerapu bebek (Cromileptes altivelis) yang diberi pakan dengan penambahan selenometionin. Agriplus, 22(3): 241-248

Hawkes JW. 1974. The structure of fish skin II. The chromatophore unit. Cell and Tissue Research, 149(2): 159–172

Ho ALFC, M Nicole, Bertran O, Lin J. 2013. Dietary esterified astaxanthin effects on dermal coloration and chromatophore physiology in Spinecheek Anemonefish, Premnas biaculeatus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 44(1): 76-85

International Trade Centre. 2017. Trade Statistics for International Business Development. [Internet]. [diunduh pada 31 Agustus 2017]. Tersedia pada http://trademap.org/Country_SelProduct_TS.aspx?nvpm=1|||||030119|||6|1|1|2|2|1|2|1|1

Johnston G. 2000. Effect of feeding regimen, temperature and stocking density on growth and survival of juvenile clownfish (Amphiprion percula). Thesis. Master of Science of Rhodes University. 90 p

Johnston G, Kaiser H, Hecht T, Oellermann L. 2003. Effect of ration size and feeding frequency on growth, size distribution and survival of juvenile clownfish, Amphiprion percula. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 19(1): 40-43

Kadarini T. 2009. Pengaruh salinitas dan kalsium terhadap sintasan dan pertumbuhan benih ikan Balashark (Balanthiocheilus melanopterus) Tesis. Sekolah Pascasarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor. 83 hlm

Kasai A, Oshima N. 2006. Light-sensitive motile iridophores and visual pigments the neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi. Zoological Science, 23(9): 815-819

Kusumah RV, Cindelaras S, Prasetio AB. 2015. Keragaan warna ikan clown Biak (Amphiprion percula) populasi alam dan budidaya berdasarkan analisis gambar digital. Jurnal Riset Akuakultur, 10(3): 345-355

Kusumawati D. 2011. Kajian gen pengkode pola pigmen dan profil protein pada ikan badut hitam (Amphiprion percula) Tesis. Universitas Brawijaya, Malang. 76 hlm

Lubis MZ, Pujiyati S, Mujahid M. 2013. Pengaruh anemon (Heteractis magnifica) terhadap vitalitas ikan badut (Amphiprion ocellaris) untuk meminimalisasi penggunaan karang hidup pada akuarium laut buatan. Jurnal Teknologi Perikanan dan Kelautan, 4(2): 149-154

Madinawati, Ndobe S, Gamgulu A. 2009. Pertumbuhan ikan kardinal banggai (Pterapogon kauderni) yang dipelihara pada salinitas yang berbeda dalam wadah terkontrol. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia, 8(2): 193-198

Meilisza N. 2018. Kualitas warna, pertumbuhan, dan status kesehatan ikan Rainbow Kurumoi (Melanotaenia parva) dengan suplementasi karotenoid dalam pakan Disertasi. Sekolah Pascasarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor. 133 hlm

Migaud H, Cowan M, Taylor J, Ferguson HW. 2007. The effect of spectral composition and light intensity on melatonin, stress and retinal damage in postsmolt Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Aquaculture, 270(1): 390–404

Monaghan P, Mercalfe NB, Torres R. 2009. Oxidative stres as a mediator of life history trade-offs: mechanisms, measurements and interpretation (Review and Synthesis). Ecology Letters, 12(1): 75-92

[NRC] National Research Council. 1983. Nutrient Requirement of Warmwater Fishes and Shellfishes. National Academy of Science. Washington DC (US): 102 p

Oshima N, Yokozeki A. 1999. Direct control of pigment aggregation and dispersion in tilapia erythrophores by light. Zoological Science,16(1): 51–54

Oshima N. 2001. Direct reception of light by chromatophores of lower vertebrates. Pigment Cell Research, 14(5): 312-319

Permatasari S, Utomo NBP, Nirmala K. 2016. Evaluasi vitamin E pada pakan terhadap penurunan nilai malondialdehid hati dan akumulasi logam timbal pada ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus) (Linnaeus, 1758). Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia, 16(3): 251-258

Puteri ATED. 2016. Penambahan minyak cengkeh Syzygium aromaticum dalam pakan untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan status kesehatan ikan bawal Colossoma macropomum. Tesis. Sekolah Pascasarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor. 35 hlm

Ricker WE. 1979. Growth rates and models. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ, Brett JR (Editor). Fish Physiology, volume VIII, Bioenergetics and growth, Academic Press. New York (US). pp. 677-743

Rio DD, Stewart AJ, Pellegrini N. 2005. A review of recent studies on malondialdehyde as toxic molecule and biological marker of oxidative stress. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, 15(4): 316-328

Saltwaterfish. 2017. Clownfish. [Internet]. [diunduh pada 31 Agustus 2017]. Tersedia pada https://www.saltwaterfish.com/category-saltwater-fish_clownfish

Sawyer CN, McCarty PL, Parkin GF. 2003. Chemistry for Environmental Engineering and Science 5th. McGraw Hill Book Company. Tokyo. 752 p

Sembiring SBM, Setiawati KM, Hutapea JH, Subamia W. 2013. Pewarisan pola warna ikan Klon Biak, Amphiprion percula. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, 5(2): 343-351

Shin HS, Lee J, Choi CY. 2011. Effects of LED light spectra on oxidative stress and the protective role of melatonin in relation to the daily rhythm of the yellowtail clownfish, Amphiprion clarkii. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A. 160(2): 221-228

Shin HS, Lee J, Choi CY. 2012. Effect of LED light spectra on the growth of the yellowtail clownfish, Amphiprion clarkii. Fisheries Science, 78(3): 549-556

Supriyono E, Budiyanti, Budiardi T. 2010. Respon fisiologi benih ikan kerapu macan Epinephelus fuscoguttatus terhadap penggunaan minyak sereh dalam transportasi tertutup dengan kepadatan tinggi. Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences, 15(2): 103-112

Takeuchi T. 1988. Laboratory Work Chemical Evalution of Dietary Nutrients, In: Watanabe T (ed). Fish Nutrition and Mariculture. Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Tokyo University of Fisheries. pp. 179-225

Tume RK, Sikes AL, Tabrett S, Smith DM. 2009. Effect of background colour on the distribution of astaxanthin in black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon): Effective method for improvement of cooked colour. Aquaculture, 296(1-2): 129-135

Valavanidis A, Vlahogianni T, Dassenakis M, Scoullos M. 2006. Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress in aquatic organisms in relation to toxic environmental pollutants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 64(2): 178–189

Villamizar N, Alcazar AG, Vazquez FJS. 2009. Effect of light spectrum and photoperiod on the growth, development and survival of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax larvae. Aquaculture, 292(1-2): 80–86

Wabnitz C, Taylor M, Green E, Razak T. 2003. From Ocean to Aquarium. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Cambridge (UK). 64 p

Yasir I, Qin JG. 2009. Impact of background on color performance of false Clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris, Cuvier. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 40(6): 724-734

Article Metrics

 10.32491/jii.v19i1.410
   Abstract views: 142   PDF views or download: 55

 

Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.