Phylogenetic of tuna fish (Thunnus spp.) in North Mollucas Sea, Indonesia


Nebuchadnezzar Akbar, Muhammad Aris, Muhammad Irfan, Abdurrachman Baksir, Surahman Surahman, Hawis H. Madduppa, Raismin Kotta
 DOI  https://doi.org/10.32491/jii.v18i1.370

Abstract

The tuna fish (Thunnus spp.) is highly migratory and commercial tuna fishery. The fish tuna abudance supported ocea-nography and geography condition in North Mallucas Sea. The fishery targets catch increase on fish tuna provided a view of the need for assessment of phylogenetic tuna. The study was conducted to infer the phylogenetic in North Mollucas Sea. The research method was PCR-Sequensing. Moleculer analysis included extraction, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), electrophoresis and DNA sequencing in control region mtDNA locus. Phylogenetic reconstructed with Neigbor joining with Kimura 2-parameter model using MEGA5. The result showed that four clade (bigeye, yellowfin, alalunga and skipjack). Genetic distance between bigeye with yellowfin was (0.084), bigeye with alalunga (0.163), ye-llowfin with alalunga (0.174), bigeye with skipjack (0.294), skipjack with alalunga (0.312) and yellowfin with skipjack (0.297). The overall result showed significant genetic different. That information explain about one populations species tuna. The tuna phylogeography unlimitedin geographic distributions.

 

Abstrak

Ikan tuna (Thunnus spp.) adalah ikan pelagis yang memiliki kemampuan ruaya dan nilai komersial. Kondisi oseanogra-fis dan letak geografis mendukung kelimpahan stok sumber daya ikan tuna di Perairan Maluku Utara. Aktifitas penang-kapan yang meningkat memberikan pandangan perlu adanya pengkajian filogenetik ikan tuna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh informasi filogenetik ikan tuna di perairan Maluku Utara. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode PCR-Sekuensing pada lokus mtDNA control region. Analisis molekuler meliputi ekstraksi, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), elektroforesis dan sekuensing DNA. Rekonstruksi pohon filogenetik dengan metode Neighbor joining dengan model evolusi Kimura 2-parameter dilakukan menggunakan aplikasi MEGA5. Hasil penelitian menemukan empat clade spesies ikan tuna yang berbeda (tuna mata besar, sirip kuning, alalunga, dan cakalang). Jarak genetik tuna mata besar (Thunnus obesus) dengan sirip kuning (Thunnus albacares) adalah 0,084; tuna mata besar dengan tuna alalunga (Thunnus albacore) adalah 0,163; tuna sirip kuning dengan tuna alalunga sebesar 0,174; tuna mata besar dengan caka-lang (Katsuwonus pelamis) adalah 0,294; cakalang dengan tuna alalunga adalah 0,312; dan tuna sirip kuning dengan cakalang adalah 0,297. Semua hasil menunjukkan perbedaan genetik signifikan. Namun dapat dijelaskan bahwa spesies tuna berasal dari satu keturunan. Filogeografi tuna tidak memiliki batas distribusi yang nyata spesies.

Keywords

genetic distance; phylogenetic; phylogeography; Thunnus

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